Peru is located in the central and western South America (UTM N7970840.422; E552505.422, area 19). It consists of an area of a surface area of 1,285,215.60 km ² in area, accounting for 0.87% of the planet, which are distributed in coastal region 136,232.85 km ² (10.6%), the Andean region 404,842.91 km ² (31.5%) and Amazon 754,139.84 km ² (57.9%), the northern end of Peru is the Putumayo River to 0 º 02'00 "south latitude, the southern end is on the seafront in Tacna 18 ° 21'03 "south latitude, the eastern end is at the Heath River Madre de Dios at 68 ° 39'00" west longitude and the western end is in Punta Balcones in Piura to 81 ° 19'35 ".
The Peruvian Sea or Sea of Grau is the Pacific Ocean that stretches along the Peruvian coast in an area of 3079.5 km.1 and a width of 200 miles offshore. Its rich on fish is the result of the Humboldt Current and the Child.
The highest peak is Mount Huascaran in Peru in the Cordillera Blanca, with a height of 6768 meters, the deepest canyon is Cotahuasi, even surpassing the famous Grand Canyon, the longest river in Peru's Ucayali River ( tributary of the Amazon River with 1771 km in length, the highest navigable lake in the world is Lake Titicaca in Puno / Bolivia in 8380 km ² and the largest island on the Peruvian coast is Isla San Lorenzo, Callao, 16.48 km ². It is the third largest country in South America. On April 10, 1981 the Peruvian government declared that: 2
... The Peruvian Antarctic territory has an area of 9 km2, lies between the meridians 84 ° and 90 ° west longitude to the South Pole to latitude 90 ° South ... The geographical diversity of Peru is expressed in five major areas: the sea, the coast, the Andes, the Amazon basin and the Antarctic with its ice plain ...
Geologically, Peru is a young country in much of its territory. 42% of its surface, the Andean system and the coast, appeared in the Mesozoic Era, about 130 to 65 million years, the product of tectonic upheavals created by the subduction of the Nazca plate in the South American plate.
It stands on an area affected by subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American mainland. The intensity of the clash between the two mass produced, from the Tertiary the Andes, a spectacular and virtually unique mountain range that structure the country into three geographical regions different: coastal, mountain or mountains and jungle.
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